220.127.116.11:59: MANCHU 'HINGS' AND QUEENS*
Manchu han [χan] 'king' and katun [qatun] 'queen'
are presumably borrowed from Mongolian qa(gha)n 'king'
and qatun 'queen', yet they have different initial
consonants. Were they respectively borrowed from Mongolian after and
before Mongolian q lenited to [x]?
Next: Does Jurchen complicate that scenario?
*The English words king and queen share initial /k/,
but are unrelated, whereas the Central Asian titles qa(gh)an
'king' and qatun 'queen' are related and are probably from
Xiongnu; see Vovin
(2007) for details.