Manchu han [χan] 'king' and katun [qatun] 'queen' are presumably borrowed from Mongolian qa(gha)n 'king' and qatun 'queen', yet they have different initial consonants. Were they respectively borrowed from Mongolian after and before Mongolian q lenited to [x]?

Next: Does Jurchen complicate that scenario?

*The English words king and queen share initial /k/, but are unrelated, whereas the Central Asian titles qa(gh)an 'king' and qatun 'queen' are related and are probably from Xiongnu; see Vovin (2007) for details.

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